Many start with a large spreadsheet, or database, that they have never published to anyone before and are unsurprisingly a little concerned when confronted with feverous cries to publish everything as Linked Open Data – Now!

Relax – make yourself a mug of your favourite hot beverage and approach this rationally.

There have been many presentations, posts, and the like about taking things from Sir Tim Berners-Lee’s now famous ‘raw data now’ chant in his TED talk, to your data becoming a fully fledged member of the Linked Open Data Cloud .   I produced a blog post on this a while back entitled The Data Publishing Three-Step as a help to those considering taking this data journey.  Because that’s what it is, a journey.  A series of stages to go through as you address different aspects of the data open publishing process – each stage building on the previous in an achievable way.

5 star mug Whilst you are contemplating what might be the outcome of those stages, you would do no better than to be sipping your [by now probably only warm] beverage from a 5 Star data mug!  Emblazoned on its side are the 5 star ratings for Linked Open Data:

  1. * On the web, open licensed – get your data out there, in any form, for others to use under an open license, such as the Open Government License for Public Sector Information– clear and unambiguous.  For many, this is one of the significant steps, because it often includes the convincing of others that this might be a good idea.
  2. ** Machine-readable data  – make the data you have just published readable by software.  If it was a spreadsheet that you previously published as a nicely formatted pdf – make the Excel file available in addition.
  3. *** Non-proprietary format – publish a csv file as well, then it can be used in software and applications different from those Microsoft ones.
  4. ****RDF standards – start using URIs as identifiers – and publishing in RDF format.  This step is another that needs a bit more thought as to how you are going to describe your data
  5. *****Linked RDF – link, or use, identifiers in your data to identifiers published out on the wider web of data.  If you are using a UK post code – for example why not use the Ordnance Survey URI for it (

Many of these steps could be taken in one go – you could go directly to 3* data in many cases.  Some of the steps could be taken by others on your behalf – converting your 3* data and republishing it as 5*.  There are many variations and options we come across when working with organisations to help them to confidently enter the world of Linked Data.

This post was also published on the Talis Platform Consulting Blog
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Friday night – nothing on the TV – I know! I’ll browse through the Protection of Freedoms Bill, currently passing through the UK Parliament. Sad I know, but interesting.

Government spending data published %007C Lets scroll back in time a bit to November 19th 2010 and a government press conference introduced by a video from Prime Minister David Cameron.  The headline story was about the publishing of government spending and contract data, but towards the end of this 109 second short he said the following:

… the most exciting is a new right to data. Which will let people request streams of government information and use it for social or commercial purposes.  Take all this together and we really can make this one of the most open, accountable and transparent governments there is.  Let me end by saying this. You are going to have so much information about what we do, how much of your money we spend doing it, and what the outcome is.  So use it, exploit it, hold us to account.  Together we can set a great example of what a modern democracy aught to look like. (my emphasis)

Obviously to realise this Right to Data there needs to be some legislation, which brings me to the Protection of Freedoms Bill.  This is one of those bills which covers all sorts of issues, from rules for destruction of fingerprints and DNA profiles, CCTV camera regulations, detention of terrorist suspects, to freedom of information and data protection.  Zooming in on the bits on the topic of the release and publication of datasets held by public authorities, we find a set of clauses that amend the Freedom of Information Act 2000.


After some amendments which allow for datasets and provision in electronic form we get this: “the public authority must, so far as reasonably practicable, provide the information to the applicant in an electronic form which is capable of re-use.”  Unfortunately there is no definition of the term re-use.  It could be argued that a pdf of some tables in a MS Word document could be re-used, where as I believe the spirit of the legislation should be made more explicit to by identifying non-proprietary data formats.  I know this would be a tricky job for the parliamentary draftsmen, as we would not want to restrict it to things, such as XML and csv, that could age and be replaced by something better which then could not be used as it had not been mentioned in the legislation, but I believe that just using the term ‘re-use’ is far too woolly and open to [mis]interpretation.

What is [not] a dataset

This is one of the areas that raises most concern for me. Checkout this wording from the Bill:text1 I am OK with (a) – data collected as part of an authority doing it’s job – and (c) – don’t change the data you have collected – publishing that raw data is important.  However (b) specifically excludes data that is the product of analysis.  Presumably analysis of collected data is one significant way that an authority measures the outcomes of its efforts.  Understanding that analysis will help understand the subsequent decisions and actions they make and take.  I assume that there may be some specific reasons that underpin this blanket exclusion of analysis data.  If there are, they should be identified, instead of generally throttling the output of useful data that will go a long way to helping with Mr Cameron’s stated ambition for us to be able to see “what the outcome is” of the spending of public money.

Release of datasets for re-use

This is a whole new section (11A)  to be added to the 2000 act to cover the release of datasets. It covers ownership, copyright, and/or database right of the information to be published and states that it should be published under “the licence specified by the Secretary of State in a code of practice issued under section 45”. Section 45 basically puts in to the hands of the Secretary of State the definition of the license(s) data should be published under.  As of today the Open Government Licence for public sector information is what is wanted to keep the publishing of information open.  However, what is there to stop a future Secretary of State, who has a less open outlook in replacing it with far more restrictive licences?  Do we not need some form of presumption of openness being attached to the Secretary of States powers as part of this change in legislation?

On the topic of presumptions of openness, the wording of this bill contains phrases such as “unless the authority is satisfied that it is not appropriate for the dataset to be published” and “where reasonably practicable”.  It is clear that many in the public sector are not as enthusiastic about publishing data as the current government position and such vague phrases as these may well be unreasonably used by some in justifying a throttling of the stream of information.   They could easily be used to build in a bureaucratic decision hurdle for each dataset to have to jump, proving its appropriateness and practicality, before publication.  I am sure that it would not be beyond a parliamentary draftsman’s skill to produce wording that means that all will be published, unless a specific objection is raised for an individual dataset, for reasons of excessive effort or data protection reasons.

Up-dated data

Data published by an authority should be published under a scheme, the following applies here:Protection of Freedoms Bill (HC Bill 146)How should we interpret “any up-dated version held by the authority of such a dataset”? My interpretation is that once a dataset has been published is shall continue to be published as it changes.  The precedent for this is spending data – having published authority spending for January 2011, authorities should be automatically publishing it for February and following months.  But what if, in response to a request, an authority publishes the contents of a spreadsheet used to track the amount of salt applied to roads in its area during winter 2010-11 and then uses a different spreadsheet for the following winter.  Does the output of that new spreadsheet constitute a new dataset, or an up-date to it’s predecessor?  From the wording in the Bill it is not clear.

Who does it cover?

I probably need a bit of help here from those that understand the public sector better than I do, but I am suspicious that references to the organisations listed in Schedule 1 and “the wider public sector”, do not take the net wide enough to cover some of the data that is relevant to our daily lives but is delivered on behalf of some authorities by third parties.  For example I am aware that recently a large city was not able to inform citizens of their rubbish collection schedules because that data was considered as commercially restricted by their service provider.


So in summary, I welcome the commitment to a right to data being realised by streams of government information about what we do, how much of our money is spend doing it, and what the outcomes are.  However, I am sceptical as to how effective the measures in the current Protection of Freedoms Bill will be in delivering them.  Especially in the light of very recent comments made by the Prime Minister highlighting the “enemies of enterprise” in Whitehall and town halls across the country, attacking what he called the “mad” bureaucracy that holds back entrepreneurs.  Those enemies are just the people who might take the wording of this bill as ammunition in their cause.

mug Whilst being concerned about this topic, I have been wondering why few are commenting on it.  Are the majority just taking the press conference statements by David Cameron, and his fellow Ministers, as indications of a battle won, or am I missing something?  I promote Sir Tim Berners-Lee’s 5 Star Data as the steps towards a Web of Linked Data – if we don’t get the publishing of public sector data to at least 3 star standard (Available as machine-readable structured data – in non-proprietary format), many of the current ambitions may remain just that, ambitions.  That would be a massive missed opportunity.

So are we getting a right to data? – or just some provisions to extend the Freedom of Information Act a bit further in the dataset direction?  I’m not sure.

Personal note: As you may tell from the above, I am no expert on the interpretation of parliamentary legislation, and I have left several unanswered questions hanging in this post.  Any help in clarifying my thinking, confirming or disproving my assumptions, or answering some of those questions, will be gratefully received in comments to this post or your own posted thoughts.

This post was also published on the Nodalities Blog
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linkedlocalgovAs often is the way, events have conspired to prevent me from producing this third and final part in this How & Why of Local Government Spending Data as soon as I wanted.  So my apologies to those eagerly awaiting this latest.

To quickly recap, in Part 1 I addressed issues around why pick on spending data as a start point for Linked Data in Local Government, and indeed why go for Linked Data at all.  In Part 2, I used some of the excellent work that Stuart Harrison at Lichfield District Council has done in this area, as examples to demonstrate how you can publish spending data as Linked Data, for both human and programmatic consumption.

I am presuming that you are still with me on my basic assumptions “…publishing this [local government spending] data is a good thing” and “Publishing Local Authority data, such as local spending data, as ‘Linked Data’ is also a good thing”, plus the technique of using URIs to name things in a globally unique way (that also provides a link to more information) is not providing you with mental indigestion.  So, I now want to move on to some of the issues that are causing debate in the community which come under the headings of ontologies  identifiers.


An ontology, according to Wikipeda, is a formal representation of knowledge as a set of concepts within a domain  –  an ontology provides a shared vocabulary, which can be used to model a domain – that is, the type of objects and/or concepts that exist, and their properties and relations.  So in our quest to publish spending data what ontology should we use?  The Payments Ontology, with the accompanying guide to it’s application, is what is needed.  Using it, it becomes possible to describe individual payments, or expenditure lines, and their relationship between the authority (payment:payer) the supplier (payment:payee) category (payment:expenditureCategory) etc.  The next question is how do you identify the things that you are relating together using this ontology.

Lets take this one step at a time:

  1. Give the expenditure line, or individual payment, an identifier possibly generated by our accounts system. eg. 8605670.
  2. Make that identifier unique to our local authority by prefixing it with our internet domain name. eg. – note the prefix of ‘http://’.  This enables anyone wanting detail about this item to follow the link to our site to get the information.
  3. Associate a payer with the payment with an RDF statement (or triple) using the Payments Ontology:
    payment:payer .

    Note I am using an identifier for the payer that is published by  That is so that everyone else will unambiguously understand which authority is the one responsible for the payment.

  4. Follow the same approach for associating the payee
    payment:payee .
  5. And then repeat the process for categorisation, payment value etc.

This immediately throws up a couple of questions, such as why use a locally defined identifier for the payee – surely there is an identifier I can use that other will recognise, such as company or VAT number!  – there are, but as of the moment there are no established sets of URI identifiers for these. are doing some excellent work in this area, but Companies House, the logical choice for publishing such identifiers, have yet to do so.  Pragmatically it is probably a good idea to have a local identifier anyway and then associate it with another publicly recognised identifier:
owl:sameAs .


A_Colorful_Cartoon_Chicken_Laying_a_Golden_Egg_Royalty_Free_Clipart_Picture_100705-004451-507053 Because this is all very new and still emerging, we now find ourselves in a bit of a chicken-or-egg situation.   I presume that most authorities have not built a mini spending website, like Lichfield District Council has, to serve up details when someone follows a link like this: 

You could still use such an identifier using your authority domain, and plan to back it up later with a web service to provide more information later.  Or you could let someone else, who takes a copy of your raw data, do it for you as OpenlyLocal might: or maybe how the project we are working on with LGID might:  If the open flexible world of Linked Data it doesn’t matter too much which domain an identifier is published from, or for that matter how many [related] identifiers are used for the same thing.

It does matter however, for those looking to the identifying URI for some idea of authority.  As I say above, technically it doesn’t matter who’s domain the identifier comes from, but I believe it would be better overall if it came from the authority who’s payment it is identifying.  Which puts us back in the chicken-or-egg situation as to resolving the URI to serve up more information.   The joy of Linked Data is that, provided aggregators consider the possibility of being able to identify source authorities data accurately when they encode it, it should be possible to automatically retrofit  links between URIs at a later date.

In summary over this series of posts we are seeing a technology which, although it has obvious benefits, is still early on the development curve; being applied to a process which is also new and scary for many.  An ideal breading ground for cries of pain, assertions of ‘it doesn’t work’ or ‘not worth bothering’, yet with the potential to provide a powerful foundation for a future open, accessible, and beneficial to authorities, government, citizens, and UK Plc data rich environment.  Yes it is worth bothering, just don’t expect benefits on day, or even month, one.

This post was also published on the Nodalities Blog


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linkedlocalgovI started the previous post in this mini-series with an assumption – ..working on the assumption that publishing this [local government spending] data is a good thing. That post attracted several comments, fortunately none challenging the assumption.   So learning from that experience I am going to start with another assumption in this post.  Publishing Local Authority data, such as local spending data, as ‘Linked Data’ is also a good thing.  Those new to this mini-series, check back to the previous post for my reasoning behind the assertion.

In this post I am going to be concentrating more on the How than the Why Bother.

homeTo help with this I am going to use, some of the excellent work that Stuart Harrison at Lichfield District Council has done in this area, as examples.  Take a look at the spending data part of their site:   On the surface navigating your way around the site looking at council spend by type, subject, month, and supplier is the kind of experience a user would expect. Great for a website displaying information about a single council.

However, it is more than a web site.  Inspection of the Download data tab shows that you can get your hands on the source data in csv format.  Here is one line, representing a line of expenditure, from that data:

“”,”Lichfield District Council”,”2010-04-06″,”7747″,”″,”120.00″,”BRISTOW & SUTOR”,”401″,”Revenue Collection”,”Supplies & Services”,”Bailiff Fees”,””

… which represents the data displayed on this human readable page:

Lichfield District Council Spending Data - Details of payment number 8605670
Looking through the csv, you can pick out the strings of characters for information such as the date, supplier name, department name etc.  In addition you can pick out a couple of URIs:

Linked Data for Lichfield District Council %007C In the context of csv, that’s all these URIs are, identifiers.  However because they are http URIs you can click through to the address to get more information.  If you do that with your web browser you get a human readable representation of the data.  These sites also provide access to the same data, formatted in RDF, for use by developers.

Source of You can see that data by adding ‘.rdf’ to the end of the address, thus: and then selecting the ‘view source’ option of your browser for the page of gobbledegook that you get back.

Inspecting the RDF, you will see that most things, except descriptive labels and financial values, are are now identified as URIs such as and  Again if you follow those links, you will get a human readable representation of that resource, and the RDF behind it by adding a ‘.rdf’ suffix.

The eagle-eyed, inspecting the RDF-XML for Lichfield payment number 8605670, will have noticed a couple of things.  Firstly, a liberal sprinkling of elements with names like payment:expenditureCategory or payment:payment. These come from the Payments Ontology as published on as the recommended way of encoding spending, and other payment associated data, in RDF.

Secondly, you may have spotted that there is no date, or supplier name or identifier.  That is because those pieces of information are attributes associated with a payment – invoice number 7747 in this case.

BBC - Wildlife Finder - Whooper swan facts, pictures & stunning videos Zooming out from the data for a moment, and looking at the human readable form, you will see that most things, like spend type, invoice number, supplier name, are clickable links, which take you through to relevant information about those things – address details & payments for a supplier, all payments for a category etc.  This intuitive natural navigation style often comes as a positive consequence of thinking about data as a set of linked resources instead of the traditional rows & columns that we are used to.  Another great example of this effect can be found on a site such as the BBC Wildlife Finder.  That is not to say that you could not have created such a site without even considering Linked Data, of course you could.  However, data modelled as a set of linked resources almost self-describes the ideal navigation paths for a user interface to display it to a human.

The Linked Data practice of modelling data, such as spending data, as a set of linked resources and identifying those resources with URIs [which if looked up will provide information about that resource] is equally applicable to those outside of an individual authority.  By being able to consume that data, whilst understanding the relationships within it and having confidence in the authority and persistence of the identifiers within it, a developer can approach the task of aggregating, comparing, and using that data in their applications more easily.

So, how do I (as a local authority) get my data from its raw flat csv format, in to RDF with suitable URIs and produce a site like Lichfield’s?  The simple answer is that you may not have to – others may help you do some, if not all, of it.   With help from organisations such as esd-toolkit, OpenlyLocal, SpotlightOnSpend, and with projects such as the xSpend project we are working on with LGID, many of the conversion [from csv], data formatting processes, and aggregation are being addressed – maybe not as quickly or completely as we would like, but they are.  As to a human readable web view of your data, you may be able to copy Stuart by taking up the offer of a free Talis Platform Store and then running your own web server with his code that he hopes to share as open source.  Alternatively it might be worth waiting for others to aggregate your data and provide a way for your citizens to view your data.

As easy as that then! – Well not quite, there are some issues about URI naming and creation, and how you bring the data together that still do need addressing by those engaged in this.  But that is for Part 3….

This post was also published on the Nodalities Blog
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